Bunion or Hallux Valgus is the deformity of the big toe,when it is moved away from the midline of the body. Its often with the enlargement of the bone or thickening of the tissue around the head of the bone.


The primary causes of the bunion can be tight-fitting shoes itself or genetic factors which are exacerbate by tight shoes.

Bunion occurs when there is an excessive amount of pressure on the side of the big toe forcing it inward. Therefore the tissues around it become swollen and tender.

The bump itself is due to the swollen bursal sac or a bony anomaly on the metatarsophalangeal joint. The larger part of the bump is a normal part of the head of the first metatarsal bone that has tilted sideways.


  • Irritated skin around the bunion
  • pain when walking, joint redness and pain
  • possible shift of the big toe toward the other toes
  • Blisters may form around the site of the bunion

Contributing Factors

1. Flat feet

2. Excessive flexibility of ligaments

3. Abnormal bone structure

4. Neurological conditions


Treatment can be surgical or non-surgical depends on the extend of the deformity and the extend of the limitations that bunion caused for patient.

Physiotherapy treatments include recommendation of resting,icing and applying different orthotics (accommodative padding and shielding).

Physio savvy usually performs releasing techniques such as mobilization and traction for the joint to correct the alignment of the joint and remove the pressure from it.

The best orthotics which we usually recommend for first stages of the problem is gelled toe spacers and bunion or toes separators.

These are two types of orthotics which helps the big toe to stay in its position.


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Parisa Tanoori

Parisa Tanoori

Physiotherapist at Physio Savvy
Parisa is certified with a Bachelor of Science in Physiotherapy from Shiraz University of Medical Science, Iran. She is currently completing her PhD in Sports Medicine with the special interest of Kinesiology taping in Universiti Malaya.
Parisa Tanoori

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Posted in Foot Conditions.