Osteoarthritis of the Knee

Osteoarthritis (OA) is degeneration of the bone due to aging, wearing and tearing. It is the most common type of joint injury and more often occurs in the elderly.

Due to the tremendous amount of weight bearing and support born by the knee, one of the first joints to be affected by OA is the knee. As we age the synovial fluid within the knee reduces and the bony surfaces do not slide over each other as easily. This in turn causes the articular cartilage of the bone to wear down leaving only bone on bone gliding over each other.

The result of two bones constantly grinding together is degeneration of the bony surface and micro-fractures. This in turn causes inflammation of the surrounding structures causing pain, swelling and reduced mobility.

Risk factors:

Repetitive strain to the knees, poor footwear, poor nutrition, osteoporosis.

Clinical signs:

Pain at knee, muscular atrophy of the quadriceps, altered joint positioning of the knee causing bow leg position, reduced range of motion in the knee, pain during climbing of staircase, getting up from squatting position.


For the knee – Pain, numbness, swelling


Strengthening exercise of the lower limb, traction of knee, ultrasound, cryotherapy, heat therapy


OA is a degenerative condition and if not treated will only get worst. However with the proper physiotherapy intervention pain management , functionality and a reduction of the symptoms is possible.

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Christian Theseira

Christian Theseira

Physiotherapist at Physio Savvy
Christian Theseira qualified with a bachelor of physiotherapy from Manipal University India after completing a 3 year diploma locally at MAHSA university. His keen interest in the human body began when he served Celebrity Fitness as a personal trainer. Wanting a better understanding of the human physiology and mechanics, he explored the science of physiotherapy where his interests lead him in to the field of neurological rehab. In addition, he has also written a thesis in the field.
Christian Theseira

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Posted in Musculoskeletal Disorders.